Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Motivating employees Essays - Human Resource Management,

Presentation Inciting the enthusiastic vitality of workers is the most troublesome test confronting authoritative pioneers around the world. A few hierarchical practices can be credited towards how fruitful an organization will be. Inspiration is a significant viewpoint in numerous associations and is likewise a key determinant in the triumph of a business. Inspiration is characterized as the way toward starting and coordinating conduct, and eagerness to apply elevated levels of exertion to head toward authoritative objectives, adapted by the exertion's capacity to fulfill singular needs (Gabriel 1989: 224; Mathis and Jackson 2006: 79). In this way, inspiration is viewed as negative to the features of the executives inside the workforce, where the nature of work that individuals express is frequently a consequence of the inspiration they have. This article will talk about the idea of inspiration by concentrating on content speculations of inspiration and its related hypotheses through investigati on of the variable idea of requirements and desires. Likewise, this article will talk about the significance of having a spurred workforce and how the utilization of these speculations is essential in accomplishing staff inspiration. Finally, this exposition will incorporate an assessment of Southwest Airlines, with specific accentuation on the connections among inspiration and worth creation for the organization, just as staff fulfillment. Inspiration The persuasive procedure in the executives can be treated as a need fulfilling process. Content hypotheses of inspiration are principally worried about the elements of worker needs, in which the Maslow pecking order of necessities and McGregor?s X and Y hypothesis show the immense extent of requirements in persuasive procedures (Mullins 1996: 85). Maslow?s Hierarchy of Needs Wellsprings of inspiration can be organized in a various leveled structure. Maslow?s progression of necessities hypothesis suggests that inside each individual are five needs that should be fulfilled. These incorporate, from the base of the order to the top; physiological requirements ? these incorporate the bodies programmed endeavors to work, security needs ? assurance from passionate and physical mischief, social needs ? feeling of having a place, regard needs ? getting of regard, certainty and quality and sense of pride and self-actualisation needs. This hypothesis attests that people fulfill these necessities in a stage like procedure. Maslow (1943, refered to in Mullins 1996 : 40) likewise proposed that once the low requests of the chain of importance we fulfilled they were no longer helpers. These base level sparks are broadly acknowledged as getting by on the planet. Inside every one of these phases there is a tremendous scope of necessities that could fit into every classifi cation thus proposing every people needs could be extraordinary and interesting (Gabriel 1989: 224; Maslow 1943, refered to in Mullins 1996: 40). X and Y Theory Different wellsprings of inspiration are responsible for empowering singular conduct. McGregor?s X and Y hypothesis is fundamentally a negative and positive perspective on representatives individually. Hypothesis X accept representatives to be languid and must be forced to perform, and that lower request needs command people. Conversely, hypothesis Y expect that representatives are dependable can practice self-bearing and that more significant level needs prevail. Along these lines both Theory X and Y offer wide-going classifications of requirements, proposing the requirements for inspiration are not foreordained, yet rather flighty for every individual worker (McGregor 1960, refered to in Mullins 1996: 41). A Motivated Workforce An effective association is exceptionally reliant on a propelled workforce. Inspiration influences the yield of an association, which concerns both amount and quality. For example, an association depending intensely on the effectiveness of their creation representatives needs to ensure that items are made so as to comply with time constraints. Be that as it may, if workers come up short on the inspiration to deliver finished items to comply with the time constraint, at that point the association faces critical outcomes in notoriety and productivity (Certo 2005: 281-282; Tosi, Mero Gabriel 1989: 227; Tosi et al. 2000:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Critical Evaluation of the Accenture on the Innovation Death Spiral Article

Basic Evaluation of the Accenture on the Innovation Death Spiral - Article Example Market assessment at IBM restricted may include looking fundamentally into the business condition to distinguish the requirements and needs of the clients and concoct legitimate approaches to meet the recognized needs. It might additionally include enabling workers through different techniques, for example, giving them train programs. Development may likewise be followed by distinguishing whether the organization can give its workers the vital inspiration to guarantee the important activity completes as proposed (Bessant and Tidd, 2013). Development at IBM constrained may likewise be followed by means of distinguishing the capacity of the organization to set up legitimate systems with clients, providers and all partners. This implies for IBM restricted to be fruitful it must be contrary to set up clear correspondence systems. The systems may assist with gathering data in regards to the market request and anticipate how the distinguished needs could be met in an increasingly successfu l and proficient way. At long last, advancement might be followed by means of the constant quest for the essential guidance that may assist with keeping the IBM restricted from pushing ahead. This implies solid administration might be required to lead others towards diverting their endeavors toward acknowledging association objectives and destinations (Adair, 2009). The three most significant methodologies might be utilized to forestall IBM constrained from moving towards the passing winding such methodologies incorporate; forward leap, stage, and gradual developments. Advancement development approach might be reasonable for IBM constrained given that it is an enormous association that has huge capital ventures. This methodology has been end up being effective at Apple Company on it’s I cushion brand. The second sort of creative methodology that might be applied by IBM Limited may include stage innovation.â

Friday, August 21, 2020

Heathcliff and Catherine in Wuthering Heights Essay Example

Heathcliff and Catherine in Wuthering Heights Essay Example Heathcliff and Catherine in Wuthering Heights Essay Heathcliff and Catherine in Wuthering Heights Essay Paper Topic: Wuthering Heights Heathcliff and Catherine are portrayed as perfect partners, their affection exists on a higher or otherworldly plane; they have such a high proclivity for one another that they are drawn together wildly. The relationship is depicted as very nearly one substance as though the two characters have gotten joined together. Catherine articulates to Nelly ‘I am Heathcliff! He’s consistently, consistently in my brain. In any case, as my being’. The citation exemplifies their inseparable love, paying little heed to isolate marriage and physical separation their spirits will consistently be indistinguishably connected. Besides, the representation maybe represents forever, as their affection is rarely missing or isolated, their hearts have gotten for all time unbreakable. The utilization of the exclamative sentence underscores the enthusiasm and power encompassing their relationship. Moreover, the redundancy of ‘always’ fortifies the feeling of interminable and undying affection. In section 16, after Catherine’s passing Heathcliff echoes Catherine’s discourse to Nelly and he is passed on as confused as a feature of his sole has died because of her end. Heathcliff states ‘Oh God! It is unutterable! I can't live without my life! I can't live without my soul!’ representing his reliance on her, recommending that her reality is a necessity for his character and he falls into disarray and turmoil without her. It could be seen that citation delineates that without Catherine, Heathcliff’s personality is hindered and that is deplorable to suffer existence without Catherine. Bronte presents Heathcliff and Catherine to be perfect partners, she depicts the two characters to be dependent on each other for security and that it would be simply deplorable for one to live without the other. The adoration among Heathcliff and Catherine is additionally depicted as fanatical and all devouring. On Heathcliff’s come back to Wuthering Heights, he visits Catherine at Thrushcross Grange. Bronte utilizes a metaphor to show Catherine’s fixation on Heathcliff ‘her look

Friday, May 29, 2020

The Research Question is What Our World is Made Of - 1100 Words

The Research Question is: What Our World is Made Of? (Movie Review Sample) Content: NameInstructorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s nameCourseDateWhat the world is made ofThe most important question for us humans is how we got here. This question nagged a lot of people, but the answer was always elusive. It was not until the invention of ships and navigation that people started exploring the world. This expeditions eventually lead the Europeans to discover America. They believed they were special and better than other people.An Irish doctor called Hans Sloane, arrived in Jamaica in 1687. He was a botanist and personal physician to the government. In Jamaica, he studied plants mostly medicinal plants and was very fascinated by them; to a point he almost collected every type of plant he came across. The plants were very important to Jamaica; they acted as a source of food, building ships and as medicine.Sloane was fascinated with nature and made public his findings which opened the word to the diversity of life. His work and explorations brought nature from the wilderness to the open world. He died in 1873. Most of his discoveries were preserved in museums.FossilsIn the 18th century in Paris people discovered fossils; some of which were 45 million years old, and realized that they were ones living things. Georges Cuvier was fascinated with the bone structure of living things (anatomy), a new way of studying animals by dissecting them and studying their structure. He compared the structures of different animals and studied different parts to know their function; which gave an insight in the study of fossils. In Russia he compared the mammoth and the African elephant using their teeth and discovered that they were different by studying their lamina. According to him, the mammoths must have been a different species that became extinct. This idea lead to a change in the notion that godà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s nature was fixed and unchanging; this was not easy for people to believe. Other fossils that became extinct were: pterodactyl, plesiosaurus, sabre tooth tiger, giant sloth, which mysteriously disappeared from the face of the earth. The discovery of fossils lead to revolution of trying to understand what they were and when they existed-the issue of time; questions about the age true age of the earth arose.18th century was the age of experiments. Comte de Buffon set out to find the true age of the earth by carrying out experiments on read 3 hot iron ball of different sizes, and allowed measured the time it took to cool. He postulated that, if the time taken by iron balls to cool can be measured, the age of the earth can be interpolated using those measurements. Through his experiments he arrived at three figures: 37.5 thousand years, 75 thousand years (which was thought to be the present age of the earth) and 160 thousand years (where earth would be too cold for life to exist).At Sika point in Scotland Dr. Clare Bond explains how rocks are aligned-unconformity. Through geological studies different forces that shape the earth are studied; so me of the forces are waterfalls, rain and glaciers. The time it took to shape the earth would explain how the earth was formed.EvolutionRobert Chambers a prolific writer and an avid reader, wrote a philosophical book about change of species calling it transmutation (evolution), which explained that all things are capable of change. He further proposed that human beings were an extension of nature. Chambers believed that as Society and communities change, so do nature. However he could not give an explanation of what coursed the change and why evolution occursIt was Charles Darwin who gave a reasonable explanation to evolution. He argued that evolution was driven by completion between individuals. Any individual that had a competitive advantage over the others survived, when the others perished. The surviving individuals passed the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"goodà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ traits to their offspring; after a long period of time, this process eventually lead to emergence of new species by natural selection ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"X6gJeWtf","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Darwin and Wallace)","plainCitation":"(Darwin and Wallace)"},"citationItems":[{"id":45,"uris":[""],"uri":[""],"itemData":{"id":45,"type":"article-journal","title":"Evolution by natural selection.","container-title":"Evolution by natural selection.","author":[{"family":"Darwin","given":"Charles"},{"family":"Wallace","given":"Alfred Russel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1958"]]}}}],"schema":"

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The United States Congress Passed The Kansas Nebraska Act

n 1854, the U.S. Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which basically opened all new domains to servitude by declaring the guideline of well known sway over congressional decree. Master and abolitionist servitude strengths battled viciously in Draining Kansas, while resistance to the demonstration in the North prompted the development of the Republican Party, another political substance in light of the standard of restricting subjection s expansion into the western domains. After the Supreme Court s decision in the Dred Scott case (1857) affirmed the lawfulness of subjugation in the regions, the abolitionist John Brown s attack at Harper s Ferry in 1859 persuaded increasingly southerners that their northern neighbors were twisted†¦show more content†¦Beauregard. Four more southern states–Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee–joined the Confederacy after Fort Sumter. Outskirt slave states like Missouri, Kentucky and Maryland did not withdraw, but rather there was much Confederate sensitivity among their nationals. In spite of the fact that at first glance the Civil War may have appeared an unbalanced clash, with the 23 conditions of the Union getting a charge out of a gigantic point of preference in populace, fabricating (counting arms creation) and railroad development, the Confederates had a solid military convention, alongside a portion of the best officers and commandants in the country. They likewise had a cause they trusted in: safeguarding their long-held customs and foundations, boss among these being subjection. In the First Battle of Bull Run (referred to in the South as First Manassas) on July 21, 1861, 35,000 Confederate fighters under the order of Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson constrained a more noteworthy number of Union powers (or Federals) to withdraw towards Washington, D.C., dashing any trusts of a speedy Union triumph and driving Lincoln to call for 500,000 more enlists. Indeed, both sides underlying call for troops must be broadened after it turned out to be clear that the war would not be a constrained or short clash. The Civil War in Virginia (1862) George B. McClellan–who supplanted the maturing General Winfield Scott as

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Oedipus Riddle of the Sphinx as a Metaphor of Life Essay

Oedipus: Riddle of the Sphinx as a Metaphor of Life Oedipus Rex (the King), written by Sophocles, is the tragic play depicting the disastrous existence to which Oedipus, an Athenian, is fated to endure. With a little help from the gods and the fated actions and decisions of Oedipus, an almost unthinkable misfortune unfolds. Athenian perfection can consist of intelligence, self-confidence, and a strong will. Oedipus, the embodiment of such perfection, and his tragedy are common place to Athenians. Ironically, the very same exact characteristics that bring about the ominous discovery of Oedipus fate: to kill his father and marry his mother. Oedipus fated decisions entangle everyone whom is of any significance to him†¦show more content†¦OEDIPUS: My wife!--Did she give it to you? SHEPHERD:My lord, she did. OEDIPUS: Do you know why? SHEPHERD: I was told to get rid of it. OEDIPUS: An unspeakable mother! SHEPHERD: There had been prophecies . . .It was said that the boy would kill his father. OEDIPUS: Then why did you give him over to this old man? SHEPHERD: I pitied the baby, my King, And I thought that this man would take him far away To his own country. He saved him--but for what a fate! For if you are what this man says you are, No man living is more wretched than Oedipus.(4.55-68) Oedipus is weakest during this point in his life and has no part in the actions that take place in respect to his life. When Oedipus is born, Jocasta is probably around the very young of thirteen to sixteen. Taking her age into accountability, Jocastas decision making is possibly not what it should be in order to analyze and choose a wise course of action is response to the prophecy. Jocastas decision to pass the responsibility of killing the ill-fated child to the shepherd only aids in the fulfillment of the prophecy and Oedipus cursed life. The shepherd sparing his life and giving him toShow MoreRelatedOedipus Essay767 Words   |  4 PagesSophocles Oedipus the King is a tragic play which discusses the tragic discovery of Oedipus that he has killed his father and married his mother. The story of Oedipus was well known to the athenian s. Oedipus is the embodiement of the perfect Athenian. He is self-confident, intelligent, and strong willed. Ironically these are the very traits which bring about his tragic discovery. Oedipus gained the rule of Thebes by answering the riddle of Sphinx. Sophocles used the riddle of the sphinx as aRead MoreOedipus Rex : A Tragic Hero882 Words   |  4 Pagesthat the gods would guide them and that everyone was destined to live out their fates. In the case of Oedipus Rex, fate drove him into a downfall. Oedipus Rex is a part of the great Sophoclean play, written by Sophocles. Sophocles wrote this story to exemplify a tragic hero, he uses specific character flaws to explain the downfall of his hero. 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Wrote 123plays but only 7 survived: Ajar, Antigone, Trachinian women, Oedipus Tyrannoss, Electras, Philocetes, and Oedipus at Colonus. Also increased the number of chorus from

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

New Product Development for External Management Environment

Question: Discuss about theNew Product Developmentfor External Environment. Answer: Introduction For a business to prosper then it needs to produce goods and services which are able to satisfy the needs of the customers and the stakeholders in the industry. The startup business will have to examine the relationship between the internal and external environment through situational analysis. According to (Atuahene,2007) , the internal environment will involve the products, market, customers and competitors and how they relate to the external environment. Solve Online, is a small company that is owned by a family that is able to adjust to high end leadership in business. It is located in Preston plaza in Johnsonville Town and sells calendar programs that are customized, printing and web designing and other computer items to about 200 businesses, which use programs like e books and designs for promotion purposes. Solve online face different challenges during the off peak seasons. One of the challenges is the employees become idle and the equipment is not in operation. The company needs to increase its sales leading to increment in profits by proper use of the available resources. A major challenge facing Solve online Software is how to increase profits and make better use of its resources during the low season. The company will evaluate the internal environment by examining the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats that affect the business. In trying to focus on situational analysis, the company will come up with ways of development of new products and services targeted to the customers. The situational analysis will be determined by the internal factors that will affect the business which is in its stage of growth. Products. Solve online tries to market the software, calendars and also customized advertisement to the clients by use of e-books, designs of websites and printing of printouts for advertising. Solve onlines produce services and products that satisfy the needs and expectations of the different clients in the market. The management of the company acts fast to the needs and demands of the customers. The provision of quality services to the customers is hard for the competitors to copy, thereby giving Solve online a competitive advantage over the other competitors. Solve online software company also provides a high-quality advertising services to specific products in the market to its clients. The value of these customized products being advertised will depend on the prices of the products. Solve online is sensitive to consumer demands and price elasticity of the products provided to customers. The company mostly makes its products locally using the available materials. The company conducts door to door delivery of the services depending on the specifications of the services needed by the customers. Target Market(s) The first target market for the products entails medium manufacturers or separate manufacturing sections of corporations with widespread brokers, dealers, or even other distributor networks. An example would involve an agricultural producer, like Green Gold Merchants and Smart Farm machinery, which sells products to local farmers in the area dealing with farm seeds. The company provides customized calendars and e-books that contain agricultural information which will help the potential customers. The second target market will be Non-manufacturing and industrial sections of the business market that have wide network of customer, like financial institutions such as banks. Other examples will be like various hotels like horizons and hospitals to market their services to their customers. Calendars and e books could be customized to the particular service provided in the market, such as operations and accommodations in big hotels. Because solve onlines products would require wide customization to be able to meet the needs of the customers then it would be necessary come up with a marketing function. The value of currency in New Zealand has increased during the past 5 years and hence the need to expand the business to gain more profits from the exchange. The company has also experienced a growth of 5% in the last three years and it is expected to grow more. There is a wide market for the products and services in the market since the company offers a variety of products. An elaborate marketing function will focus on target market of the products and services. Economic Forces. In New Zealand the economy has grown drastically and more companies are coming up to meet the needs of the customers. As the companies are growing up it has been difficult to compete with one another leading to stiff competition and also the companies have started devising methods of curbing competition. The customized products for advertising the companies will be of help to the companies to market their products (Cheshbrough,2014). The companies will have to grow in the future with the rapid growth of the economy and the utilization of Solve online products and services in the market. Specialty advertising of the companies, such as use of software-based programs and calendars, will help the companies grow in future. Political Forces. The company is not affected by any political factors which may affect the different operations of the company in the country. Legal and Regulatory Forces. There has been legislation in the town to reduce the amount of advertising materials in the market. There have been licenses for the customized software used in advertising leading to the reduction of flow of advertising materials. Despite this more companies are now diverting their promotion money to customized advertising which indicates that most companies do not fear the potential for increased legislation. There has also been an increased legislation of copyrights and business permits by the county council. There has been increased payments of advertising through billboards and renewal of other licenses hence affecting the company operations. Technological Forces. A major emerging technological in the market involves personal information managers (PIMs), or personal digital assistants (PDAs). These devices help for the clients to store information, keep personal information and also information concerning the business by keeping notes. The software programs and computer programs should be developed more to gain competitive advantage since it is a new technology in the market. Sociocultural Forces. In the society of New Zealand, customers work most o the time and have less time for leisure (Carland,2015). The products and services in the market should be easy to use and user friendly. The products and services need to save time and resources. The Software-based programs and calendars are able to fit the specification mentioned above which is a paperless society where everyone depends on the usage of computers. Customers Solve Online has tried to focus on provision of quality products and services by adopting a differentiation strategy in the market. The annual returns have improved due to the companys ability to differentiate the products to the customers. Its target market consists of service industries like hotels, restaurants, manufacturers or manufacturing companies. The products that are profitable in the company involve; software programs and calendars, which can be customized to meet client needs which are used as a promotional tool. Due to the increase in the usage of PCs and increase in technology, the programs including e books and calendars have become more profitable. This led to the expansion of the business to suit the needs of the customers. Other businesses conducted by the company to meet all the needs of the customers involve printing of e books, documents, print outs and calendars to the customers who still need them in hard copy. Solve Online has tried to keep in touch with the customers by provision of quality products and services since the customers are a great asset to the company. Competitive Dorces. The competition in the advertising field is very rampant and the companies need to adopt a strategy that will help them compete in the market (Poetz, 2012). The competition in companies that use programs and design is very strong. Currently programs like e books and program calendars holds 40 percent and the market is growing rapidly. Also 10 percent market share held by Program software. The company has tried by holding 10 percent of the computer-based calendar and programs market. The competitors in the market involve Futuretech technologies and Comptech technologies which offers the same products in the market. The company also employs the 5 potters approach in dealing with the competitors in the market. Swot Analysis Solve online has differentiated its product through marketing, provision of quality products and services. There is also enhanced teamwork and effective communication among the employees because of the few employees. The company has also maintained a long term relationship with the suppliers which has to provision of quality goods by the supplier in the market. There is also good communication with the customers for feedback on the services provided by the company. Weaknesses The management is centralized and hence there is no opportunity for the employees to increase creativity and growth. The company may be prone to events like disasters, strikes or dissolutions of the supplier supplying the products. The different fluctuations of the production of the products bring excessive stress to the employees and the equipment. Strengths refer to the advantages that are able to give the organization to meet the needs of its customers. Weaknesses refer to the limitations that face a company in trying to develop a marketing strategy. Solve online needs new facilities and equipment since it is crowded with old materials which affects production. Opportunities The expenditure in advertising by New Zealand exceeds $20 billion annually. There is an opportunity in special advertising of organizations hence the need to focus on the market. The potential for Solve Online Softwares growth in the future is important in this market. With the changes in technology the company can be able to develop more advertising products with the advanced technology and use of computers in the market. As New Zealand companies try to develop customer relations with the customers, the company has tried to develop good relations to customers by offering gifts, bonuses and incentives. The company is able to distribute its products country wide since it is easily portable. The products involve programs and calendars. Threats Due to old channel of relationship with the distributors and brokers it is hard for the company to restructure and resize since it will lose its products, dealers and distributors. There can be theft of the secrets of the organization and also software piracy by un authorized people who may copy the information in soft copy. Strategies Solve online faces a number of challenges in the market in its operations. The company has found it difficult to determine the different needs and requirements of the company. The company should try its best to market the required products to its customers by first identifying the needs of the customer. According to Slater,(2014) the company can improve its productivity by focusing on the improvement of the available products. The company should also increase its advertising to the customers so that it captures a huge market of the products and services. The company should adapt new technology that will utilize the current equipment and human resource. This is because it has been hard for the company to adapt to technology. The company will grow more with the required equipment, human resource and finances (Kahn, 2012) .The Company can improve its profitability by improving the marketing strategies and setting up of goals. References Atuahene-Gima, K., Murray, J. Y. (2007). Exploratory and exploitative learning in new product development: A social capital perspective on new technology ventures in China.Journal of International Marketing,15(02), 1-29. Atuahene-Gima, K. (2005). Resolving the capabilityrigidity paradox in new product innovation.Journal of marketing,69(4), 61-83. Amabile, T. M. (1997). Entrepreneurial creativity through motivational synergy.The Journal of Creative Behavior,31(1), 18-26. Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., West, J. (Eds.). (2014).New frontiers in open innovation. OUP Oxford. Carland, J. C., Carland, J. W., Stewart, W. H. (2015). Seeing what's not there: The enigma of entrepreneurship.Journal of small business strategy,7(1), 1-20. Craig, A., Hart, S. (1992). Where to now in new product development research?.European Journal of Marketing,26(11), 2-49. Im, S., Workman Jr, J. P. (2004). Market orientation, creativity, and new product performance in high-te Morris, M. H. (2015). Entrepreneurship as Experience.Wiley Encyclopedia of Management chnology firms.Journal of marketing,68(2), 114-132. Kahn, K. B. (2012).The PDMA handbook of new product development. John Wiley Sons. Poetz, M. K., Schreier, M. (2012). The value of crowdsourcing: can users really compete with professionals in generating new product ideas?.Journal of Product Innovation Management,29(2), 245-256. Reid, S. E., De Brentani, U. (2004). The fuzzy front end of new product development for discontinuous innovations: A theoretical model.Journal of product innovation management,21(3), 170-184. Slater, S. F., Mohr, J. J., Sengupta, S. (2014). Radical product innovation capability: Literature review, synthesis, and illustrative research propositions.Journal of Product Innovation Management,31(3), 552-566. Wang, C. L., Rafiq, M. (2014). Ambidextrous organizational culture, contextual ambidexterity and new product innovation: a comparative study of UK and Chinese high?tech firms.British Journal of Management,25(1), 58-76. Wind, Y., Mahajan, V. (1988). New product development process: a perspective for reexamination.Journal of Product Innovation Management,5(4), 304-310.